Notes: Bourgeois and Proletarians [1888]

Reflections and Excerpt from the 1888 edition of The Communist Manifesto, first published in 1848 by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

生產力從物質轉變為非物質material →immaterial,從提供產品轉向提供服務,那麼新的生產關係會如何改變?尋找服務設計之理論。

互聯網催生下的生產與交換模式,會催生出什麼樣的階級?

  1. 共享/共生階級,精神上的無差別反哺物質差別,資本的虛擬化/非物質化帶來階級新的存在形式。
  2. 國家意識減少,非資本導向,個人選擇上的平等彌補社會之不平等。
  3. 新社群之產生,新的家庭模式 — — 跨性別與老年化社會,不同社群之共融形式,線上與線下之協同,社群自治模式(小生態圈)。
  4. 需要什麼樣的新的設計、建築、時尚思想為新的社群社會提供物質基礎:環保可持續、循環回收、綠色節能只是一小方面,更大的層面是生產方式的革新、消費與供給方式的革新、教育體系與思想之革新。

社會用外在資本的不平等,換取了人道的平等。那麼,社會資本的平等,會帶來人道的不平等嗎?在總體社會發展較低的情況下,隱性的權利階級強化,特權階級為自身謀私利的現象普遍,特供產品的時代現象,讓底層人民只能獲得較劣質的生存資料;隨著資本主義充分發展,人之妄念依然存在,強行的惠民,會讓喜歡鑽空子的人薅羊毛。故資本的平等與否,不是人道平等與否的原因,需要教育、信仰的幫助,構建人格之健全,方能達到。

資本主義的下一步,或許來源與超越國家的跨文化、種族的無產階級聯合體,突破國家的界線而建立的共同公民組織,將會形成無比龐大的力量。前提是需要跳脫出意識形態的束縛,尋找全世界共同掙扎人群的共同訴求 — — demand for enlightenment, equality and progress — — 對教化、平等、進步的共同嚮往,是人類文明的下一步走向。

Key Word Definition

Capital: Capitalist profic → theft.

-In Marxist theory, the accumulated wealth of the bourgeoisie, derived mainly from profit.

Means of production → relations of production 生產力決定生產關係

-As means of production change, the relations of production change to accommodate them. The capitalist relations of production comprise the antagonistic classes of the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. 隨著生產力的變化,生產關係會相應變化以適應。

Modern industry:

-During the Industrial Revolution, when industry meant mainly manufacturing in factories. Today, capitalism is probably better known for its system of finance than of manufacturing.

Lumpenproletariat:流氓無產階級

-The lowest layer of the working class, was sometimes reactionary and aligned itself with the bourgeoisie.某些最低工人階級,有時反動且和資本家同一陣線。proletarian revolution: workers of the world unite. 無產階級革命:世界工人聯合。

Victory of the proletariat

  • In Marxist theory, when workers appropriate the bourgeois means of production for themselves, ushering in socialism and ultimately communism. The process of dialectics, involving thesis/antithesis/synthesis, makes the proletarian revolution inevitable. Invoking dialectics led them to call their theory of communism scientific rather than utopian. 在馬克思主義理論中,工人占用生產資料為己用嗎,會帶來社會主義和最終共產主義。辯證法之過程 — — 命題/反命題/合成,讓無產階級革命變的必然發生。援引辯證法讓他們認為自己的共產主義理論更科學,相對於烏托邦。

Questions

In 1888, Marx and Engels predicted that the demise of the bourgeoisie and the victory of the proletariat were inevitable. Has that happened yet? If not, what are the implications for their theory of dialectical materialism? 辯證唯物/實利主義

No. Capitalism started to realize it disadvantages and began to build the welfare society, focus on humanity, and invoked national capitalism to make the system more moral and controllable. On the other side, socialism countries started to invoke capitalism to boost it economy, while setting communist their highest, long-term goal like a religion. 資本主義滅亡遠未發生,但給資本主義帶來警醒,促使其在社會福利、人權和人道主義、國家資本主義層面的改進,讓資本主義更富有道德正義及可控制。另一方面,社會主義國家也援引資本主義為工具來促進經濟,同時將共產主義視為最高、長遠的理想,如同宗教的存在。

Is capitalistic profit immoral?

Capitalist profit itself is not immoral or moral. It the people who in charge of the profit moral or immoral. If the profit is well arranged and some of it helps workers improve their life, its moral. If the workers suffer, thus, it’s immoral. 資本主義利潤本身沒有道德屬性,其從屬主體才有道德屬性,取決於所屬之人對其處置的方式。

What anthropological insights are missing from Marx and Engel’s analysis?

A lack of vision of people as creative agents of their own destiny and cultural change. (Max Weber) 缺乏人的視角(馬克思韋伯)

— — — — — —
Marxism: dialectical materialism 辯證唯物主義

In the later 20th and early 21st C, some of these attitudes were adopted by politically left-leaning and self-proclaimed Marxist anthropologists and were incorporated into the anthropological theories of structural Marxism, cultural neo-evolutionism, cultural materialism, feminism, postcolonialism, globalization theory, and political economy. 20–21世紀被左傾和自稱為馬克思主義人類學家吸收進人類學理論,包括建構馬克思主義,文化新演化主義,文化唯物論,女性主義,後殖民主義,全球化理論,和政治經濟學。

Oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary reconstitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes. 壓迫與被壓迫者雙方恆常對立,不斷或隱藏或公開地鬥爭,這種鬥爭結束的方式,是全社會的革命性重構、或是同時摧毀所參與的階級。

A complicated arrangement of society is found into various orders, a manifold gradation of social rank (subordinate gradations). 早期社會,社會複雜的秩序排列 — — 排序的多樣變化 — — 總體向下排列

-Rome: patricians貴族, knights騎士, plebeians平民, slaves奴隸

-the Middle Ages: feudal lords封建君主, vassals封臣, guildmasters行會成員, journeymen匠人, apprentices學徒, serfs農奴

Our epoch, the epoch of the bourgeoisie, possesses this distinctive feature: It has simplified the class antagonisms. Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into 2 great hostile camps, into 2 great classes directly facing each other — bourgeoisie and proletariat. 我們的時代有一個鮮明的特徵:簡化的階級矛盾。整個社會正在越來越分裂成兩個互相敵視的陣營 — — 資本家與無產者。

From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed. 中世紀農奴躍升為早期市鎮擁有特權的市民(匠人、商人),從這些市民身上孕育出資本家/中產階級的初步條件。

-[August von] Haxthausen [1792–1866]: Village communities were found to be, or have been, the primitive form of society everywhere. The inner organization of this primitive communistic society was laid bare, in its typical form, by [Lewis Henry] Morgan’s [1818–81] crowning discovery of the true nature of the gens情報 and its relation to the tribe部落. With the dissolution of these primeval communities, society begins to be differentiated into separate and finally antagonistic classes. I [Engels] have attempted to retrace this process of dissolution in The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State [1884]. 村落社群是社會的原始形式,隨著原始群落的解體,階級的產生源於自然本性所需的情報交換、脫胎於部落。

-Commune (community) was the name taken in France by the nascent towns even before they had conquered from their feudal lords and masters local self-government and the political rights as the Third Estate. 社群源於法國,在市鎮萌芽、從封建君主和奴隸主手中獲取自治權、政治權利作為第三財產之前。資本主義經濟發展的樣本,英國;資本主義政治發展的樣本,美國。

The increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary elements in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development. 發現美洲大陸、繞道好望角給資本家創造的新的空間。殖民經濟(東印度和中國市場、美洲),交換手段和商品的增加,一起給商貿、航運、工業一個從未有過的衝擊,並因此,催化了蹣跚/遲滯的封建社會中變革要素快速發展。

leaders of modern industry: modern bourgeois

Modern industry has established the world market, for which the discovery of America paved the way, giving an immense development to commerce, to navigation, to communication by land, increasing its capital, and pushing into the background every class handed down from the Middle Ages. 美洲大發現為現代工業建立世界市場舖路,給陸間貿易、航運、通訊極大促進資本的積聚,並進入中世紀背景下每個階級的手中。

Modern bourgeoisie is itself the product of a long course of development, of a series of revolutions in the modes of production and exchange. 結論:現代資產階級是長期發展的產物,是一系列生產與交換模式革命的產物。

Each step in the development of the bourgeoisie was accompanied by a corresponding political advance of that class. An oppressed class under the sway of the feudal nobility, it became an armed and self-governing association in the medieval commune; here independent urban republic (Italy and Germany), there taxable third estate of the monarchy (France), serving as a counterpoise against the nobility, and, the bourgeoisie at last, conquered in the modern representative state. 資本家發展之每一步都伴隨著他所在階級之政治得利:從中世紀社群之自我防衛到自治,如義大利與德國的城邦共和,法國君主立憲之可徵稅第三階級(中產階級/革命前稱呼),作為貴族之制衡,最終征服了整個現代代議制國家。

The bourgeoisie put an end to all feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations, the motley feudal ties that bound man to his natural superiors, and has left no other bond between man and man than naked self-interest, than callous cash payment. It has drowned the most heavenly ecstasies of religious fervor, of chivalrous enthusiasm, of philistine sentimentalism, in the icy water of egotistical calculation. It has resolved personal worth into exchange value, and in the place of the numberless indefeasible chartered freedoms, has set up that single, unconscionable freedom — Free Trade. In one word, for exploitation, veiled by religious and political illusions, it has substituted naked, shameless, direct, brutal exploitation. 資本家/中產階級給封建的、男權的、田園牧歌的關係帶來終結,將多種封建的天賦特權轉化為稱作現金交易的個人利益。它將宗教信念、騎士狂熱、舊約式多愁善感的天國幻覺淹沒在冰涼的利己主義算計之中。將個人價值轉化為交易價值,用單一過度的自由貿易取代數不清的無效的特許自由。總之,用一種掩蓋在宗教和政治幻覺下的剝削,替代赤裸、無恥、直接、殘酷的剝削。//Remark: 從天賦人權到用金錢購買/置換權利的道德合理性。將各種職業成為工薪勞工,而非為統治者服務的工具。

The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of production, and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society. 中產階級必須持續的改革生產方式,和接下來的生產關係,由此改變整個社會的關係,否則不能存在。Conservation of the old modes of production in unaltered form, was, on the contrary, the first condition of existence for all earlier industrial classes. 舊的生產模式以不變的形式保留,它反而成為,所有早起工業階級的生存條件。Constant revolutionizing of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. 不斷革新的生產,不間斷的攪動全社會狀況,永遠的不確定性和躁動,讓資本家時代和以前所有的時代都不一樣。//Remark: 資本主義從產生之起就以充滿不確定性和躁動氛圍為特徵,顛覆所有的價值標準,快速變化、迭代的新的關係,迫使人對於自身真正狀況和周邊關係的思考。中國也正處在這樣快速變化的時期,不穩定的社會關係對於社會也是一個向前的推力。人們迫切尋找內心的穩定,而在此環境中適應的人將具有超群的能力,引領社會進入下一輪變革期。

The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe. It must nestle everywhere, settle everywhere, establish connections everywhere. 資本主義本質是為產品在地球表面追求永恆擴張的市場,它必須在各處築巢,各處安居,在各處建立聯繫。//Remark: 永恆擴張的市場存在嗎?宇宙的擴張會最終停止嗎?In place of the old wants, satisfied by the production of the country, we find new wants, requiring for their satisfaction the products of distant lands and climes. 舊式的需要從本地的產品延伸到全球的土地和氣候帶。//Remark: 資本主義在中國依然沒有充分發展,生產全球化還未完全實現,消費全球化也還在上升階段。

The bourgeoisie has through its exploitation of the world market given a cosmopolitan character to production and consumption in every country. 資本家通過對全球市場的剝削,在每個國家的生產和消費給以國際特徵。The intellectual creations of individual nations become common property. National one-sidedness and narrowmindedness become more and more impossible, and from the numerous national and local literatures there arises a world literature. 個人國家的知識創造變成共同資產。單邊政治和一意孤行變成越來越難。從無數國家和本地文學中,世界文學開始登場。//Remark: 世界文學、世界音樂的登場,和資本主義同時誕生,從本土化到全球化的概念。

The bourgeoisie, by the rapid improvement of all instruments of production, by the immensely facilitated means of communication, draws all nations, even the most barbarian, into civilization. 資本主義,隨著生產資料的快速更新,飛速發展的通訊,讓所有國家、甚至最未開化的那些,一步踏入現代文明。//Remark: 新的通訊手段帶來新的文明,互聯網二十年的世界日新月異,世界格局重新洗牌,5G的世界文明會以何種形式產生?The cheap prices of its commodities are the heavy artillery with which it batters down all Chinese walls, with which it forces the barbarians’ intensely obstinate hatred of foreigners to capitulate. 廉價的產品是堅固的大炮,攻入了清朝中國的銅牆鐵壁,讓未開化國家對外國人強烈頑固的仇恨就此投降。Remark: 將廉價產品的賦予了友好意義,似乎是民族溝通的橋樑。 It compels all nations, on pain of extinction, to adopt the bourgeois mode of production; it compels them to introduce what it calls civilization into their midst, i.e., to become bourgeois themselves. 它強迫所有種族,在滅種的痛苦中,接受資本主義生產模式;它逼迫他們他們將所謂現代文明內化如他們的正中,成為資本家本身。Remark: 從西方法國大革命、美利堅合眾國、到東方明治維新、辛亥革命,統治者主動或被迫的讓位於資本和資本家。

Just as it has made the country dependent on the towns, so it has made barbarian and semibarbarian countries dependent on the civilized ones, nations of peasant on nations of bourgeois, the East on the West. 資本主義讓國家依託與城鎮之上,讓未開化和半開化國家依託在文明國家之上,讓農民群體依託在資本家群體上,東方依託在西方之上。//Remark: 資本主義本質意味著不平等,創造差距和貧富懸殊,現代資本主義使用福利反哺的方式平衡,但不平等的巨大懸殊之鴻溝永遠存在。

It has agglomerated population, centralized means of production, and has concentrated property in a few hands. The necessary consequence of this was political centralization, lumping together into one nation, with one government, one code of laws, one national class interest, one frontier and one customs tariff. 資本主義輕易通過幾次轉手便聚集人口,集中生產資料,集中財產。帶來的必然結果是政治的集中,體制集結成為一個種族,一個政府,一個法典,一個國家階級利益,一個邊界和一個海關稅率。//Remark: 資本主義過度發展的問題,是社會主義還未有經驗處理、但將來同樣會遇到的問題。

The bourgeoisie, during its rule of scarce one hundred years, has created more massive and more colossal productive forces than have all preceding generations together. What earlier century has even a presentiment that such productive forces slumbered in the lap the social labor? 對“稀疏”的統一管理,帶來資源集聚和巨大的生產動力,超越以往各代的總和。從來沒有前人能夠預料到,在社會勞動力的大腿中沉睡了如此高效的生產力。//Remark: 在設計的層面,如何將分佈的資源統合、統一利用和調配也是一個巨大問題。如今的時代,是在最大程度的釋放大腦和電腦的生產力,在互聯網中快速的製造、演化新的文明。

For many a decade past the history of industry and commerce is but the history of the revolt of modern productive forces against modern conditions of production, against the property relations that are the conditions for the existence of the bourgeoisie and of its rule. 過去幾十年的工業和商業歷史,是新的生產力對抗舊生產方式的歷史,是新的生產力對抗舊財產關係的歷史,這些關係是資本家和其規則賴以生存的條件。//Remark: 1. 傳統的生產方式、財產關係存在的巨大弊病、已經難以適合新的生產力需求,加上內部改革緩慢,所以自上而下劇烈動盪的原因。2. 新的生產力、年輕一代如何能夠與舊資本家、地產家族共存,將是這個社會的主要議題。資本家的本質是逐利的,期待資本家讓位於社會福利是不現實的。如果政策向市民傾斜,政府無法提供足夠資金,羊毛必須從資本家上刮取,必然引起資本外逃。3. 如何避免走向蕭條的深淵?發展新的生產方式,建立新的生產關係,振興本地工業、激活本地市場,部分取代長期依賴的進口模式;激活互聯網經濟、互聯網金融,用5G激活經濟、吸引資本並增加流動。

Epidemic of overproduction: It’s enough to mention the commercial crises that by their periodical return put the existence of the entire bourgeois society on trial, each time more threateningly. 週期性的商業危機讓整個資本主義社會的存在受到審判,一次比一次更具威脅。In these crises a great part not only of the existing products, but also of the previously created productive forces, are periodically destroyed. 在危機中,現有產品的一大部分、和先前創造的生產力,將被週期性的破壞。//Remark: 資本主義的通過經濟危機的形式消耗過剩的產品和生產力,通過短暫的社會衰退,與舊生產關係重新平衡。

How does the bourgeoisie get over these crises? On the one hand, by enforced destruction of a mass of productive forces; on the other, by the conquest of new markets, and by the more thorough exploitation of the old ones. That is to say, by paving the way for more extensive and more destructive crises, and by diminishing the means whereby crises are prevented. 資本主義如何度過危機?一方面,強制摧毀一大部分生產力;另一方面,征服新的市場,並更加剝削舊的勞動力。也就是,通過走向更加廣泛和摧毀性的危機,和通過減少能夠阻止危機發生的生產方式。//Remarks: 自掘墳墓的說法有疑問,因為人從出生開始就在自掘墳墓,所做任何事情都無法阻止其死亡的發生,資本主義的過渡才是重點,如何過渡走向更高的文明?

In proportion as the bourgeoisie, i.e., capital, is developed, in the same proportion is the proletariat, the modern working class, developed — a class of laborers, who live only so long as they find work, and who find work only so long as their labor increases capital. These laborers, who must sell themselves piecemeal, are a commodity, like every other article of commerce, and are consequently exposed to the vicissitudes of competition, to all the fluctuations of the market. 勞動者競爭的本質,來源於資本的波動。勞動者與資本同比例共存。//Remark: 要求一個無競爭的工作環境,是不符合資本主義邏輯的。所以社會主義體制內的競爭相對和緩,因為非資本導向。

The less the skill and exertion of strength implied in manual labor, in other words, the more modern industry develops, the more is the labor of men superseded by that of women. Differences of age and sex have no longer any distinctive social validity for the working class. All are instruments of labor, more or less expensive to use, according to their age and sex. 資本主義/工業革命的發展,必然帶來體力勞動的解放,男女平權的產生。

The proletariat is recruited from all classes of population. 無產階級從全社會所有階級中吸納人口。//Remark: 無產階級的背景是最為複雜的,淪落的王族後裔、貴族、資產階級,都有可能成為無產階級的一部分。With its birth begins its struggle with the bourgeoisie. They direct their attacks not against the bourgeois conditions of production, but against the instruments of production themselves; they destroy imported wares that compete with their labor, they smash machinery to pieces, they set factories ablaze, they seek to restore by force the vanished status of the workman of the Middle Ages. 無產階級從誕生起就在與資本主義抗爭。他們不將攻擊直指資本主義生產關係,而是指向他們自己的生產媒介/資料;他們毀壞與他們勞動競爭的進口商品,他們將機器打碎,他們燃燒工廠,他們期待通過暴力抗爭、重新得到中世紀勞動者的地位。//Remark: 對於現狀不滿的無產者,害怕毀滅生計,將不滿發洩在無法為自己發聲的物體上,企圖回到中世紀的黑暗中,還假想為光明。

If anywhere they unite to form more compact bodies, this is not yet the consequence of their own active union, but of the union the bourgeoisie, which class, in order to attain its own political ends, is compelled to set the whole proletariat in motion, and is moreover still able to do so for a time. At this stage, therefore, the proletarians do not fight their enemies, but the enemies of their enemies, the remnants of absolute monarchy, the landowners, the nonindustrial bourgeois, the petty bourgeoisie. Thus the whole historical movement is concentrated in the hands of the bourgeoisie; every victory so obtained is a victory for the bourgeoisie. 無產階級要集結起來,不會是自發的聯盟,而是與想要達到自己政治目的而不惜攪動無產階級浪潮的資本家聯盟。在這個階段,無產階級不會與敵人戰鬥,而是與敵人的敵人戰鬥。他們是絕對君主制的殘餘 — — 地主、非工業資本家、小資本家。所有歷史運動都集中在資產階級手中,每個勝利也是資產階級的勝利。//Remark: 香港革命成功有兩個方法,一是與本地資本家聯合,二則是外國勢力,前者相對可控、可能性較小,所以後者是政府重要的關注點。

The real fruit of their battles lies, not in the immediate results, but in the ever expanding union of the workers. This union is furthered by the improved means of communication which are created by modern industry, and which place the workers of different localities in contact with one another. It was just this contact that was needed to centralize the numerous local struggles, all of the same character, into one national struggle between classes. Every class struggle is a political struggle. 鬥爭的果實不在於立即的結果,而是不斷壯大工人聯盟。這個聯盟由不斷更新的通訊手段推進,讓不同地區的工人可以互相聯絡。這樣一個巨大的集結了不同階層的共同掙扎的網絡,是最需要匯聚的。而每個階層的掙扎都是一種政治掙扎。

Collisions between the classes of the old society further the course of development of the proletariat in many ways. The bourgeoisie itself supplies the proletariat with its own elements of political and general education, in other words, it furnishes the proletariat with weapons for fighting the bourgeoisie. 舊社會的階級對立/衝突在很多層面上支持了無產階級的發展。資本家提供無產階級帶有自身元素的政治和基礎教育,也就是,它為無產階級配備了對抗自身的武器。//Remark: 衝突總有正面意義。

Just as at an earlier period, a section of the nobility went over to the bourgeoisie, so now a portion of the bourgeoisie goes over to the proletariat, and in particular, a portion of the bourgeois ideologists, who have raised themselves to the level of comprehending theoretically the historical movement as a whole. 如同一部分貴族走向資本家,一部分的資本家也走向了無產階級,特別是一部分理想主義的資本家,他們將自己提升到了全局去理論理解整個歷史運動的層面。

The lower middle class, the small manufacturer, the shopkeeper, the peasant, 小資產階級的三個屬性

-conservative: fight against the bourgeoisie to save extinction their existence as fractions of the middle class. 保守

-reactionary: try to roll back the wheel of history. 反動保守

-revolutionary: only in view of their impending transfer into the proletariat. 革命

dangerous class, the social scum, lumpenproletariat 危險階級/社會渣滓/流氓無產階級

-the lowest layers of old society, whose conditions of life, prepare it far more for the part of a bribed tool of reactionary intrigue. 舊社會最底層,成為反動陰謀賄賂的工具。

The social conditions of the old society no longer exist for the proletariat. But Law, morality, religion, are to him so many bourgeois prejudices, behind which lurk in ambush just as many bourgeois interests. 舊社會的社會條件不再為無產階級而存在,但法律、道德、宗教都充滿了資本家的偏見潛伏在背後,代表著資本家的利益。//Remark: 無產階級為了維護資產階級的利益而存在,被意識形態利用而不自知。

All the preceding classes that got the upper hand, sought to fortify their already acquired status by subjecting society at large to their conditions of appropriation. The proletarians have nothing of their own to secure and to fortify; their mission is to destroy all previous securities for, and insurances of, individual property. 所有前存的階級獲得權力,尋求鞏固已經獲得的地位,通過服從社會支配他們的私有化。而無產階級沒有什麼用來保全和鞏固,他們的使命是摧毀所有為個人財產建立的安全和保障。

Though not in substance, yet in form, the struggle of the proletariat with the bourgeoisie is at first a national struggle. The proletariat of each country must, of course, first of all settle matters with its own bourgeoisie. 無產階級和資產階級在最初的抗爭形式都是種族抗爭。每個國家的無產階級都必須,當然,首先解決他們自己資本家的問題。//Remark: 無產階級聯盟有否可能一開始就跨越國家而存在?聯合國能發揮何種角色?忽略了互聯網的作用?

The bourgeoisie is unfit any longer to be the ruling class in society, and to impose its conditions of existence upon society as an overriding law. It is unfit to rule because it is incompetent to assure an existence to its slave within his slavery, because it cannot help letting him sink into such a state, that it has to feed him, instead of being fed by him. Society can no longer live under this bourgeoisie. Its existence is no longer compatible with society. 福利社會與資本主義社會本質相違背,註定了高福利必將讓資本主義走向滅亡。//Remark: 是否過於絕對?

The development of modern industry, therefore, cuts from under its feet the very foundation on which the bourgeois produces and appropriates products. What the bourgeoisie therefore produces, above all, are its own gravediggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable. 現代社會的發展,在資本家生產和分配產品中截斷雙腿的根基。所以資本家生產的本質,是它自己的墳墓。它的殞落和無產階級的勝利是同等無法避免的。//Remark: 對滅亡的方式沒有說清楚,只說到種族抗爭,如何從種族抗爭走向世界大團結沒有敘述。